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Once field workers have analysed the key characteristics of the community (outlined below) and identified the incentives to resource management (as outlined in the following chapter), they will be in a much better position to answer two important questions.

· What level is most appropriate for collective action? This may be an entire village, or it may be a subgroup within the village (for example, a neighbourhood, caste or clan or religious or ethnic group) if these subgroups have a greater ability to work together. In some cases it may even be a larger conglomeration of several villages or communities.

Key characteristics of the community

Historical factors
Economic factors Cultural factors

The characteristics discussed below are some that may be useful in identifying incentives to good resource management in communities. The list in no way attempts to be comprehensive since there are innumerable characteristics that might in different circumstances play a role in communities' abilities to work together on resource management activities. Nor are the categories intended to be mutually exclusive. One might list ethnicity or language under cultural factors just as well as under social factors, where they are placed in this analysis. The categories are simply a convenience that may help in thinking through some of the issues that are likely to be among the most important determinants of social cohesion and the ability to collaborate on forestry activities.

Communities are a product of their past: current development activities take place against a historical backdrop. Historical factors may hinder or help the implementation of community forestry projects; what is undisputable is that they will have some impact on the success of those projects.

Among the historical factors that play a key role in community cohesion and resource management are:

The population history reflects the ancestral origins of the community. In some cases all present members of the village may be descended from a single ancestor or family. This may be an important factor in current social cohesion. In other cases families may have divided or new families may have joined the community. If so, it is important to try to understand the basis on which the more recent members were admitted into the community.

The sequential arrival of families, lineages and clans may give rise to distinctions between founders and first settlers on the one hand, and later arrivals or even 'stranger' families on the other. Alternatively some founding families can be subjugated by later, more numerous and more powerful arrivals. Whatever their relative status, the two groups often view public issues quite differently. Their resource use patterns often reflect attempts to overcome perceived injustices in the historical distribution of resources. Newcomers may attempt to use a community forestry project to gain access to resources otherwise denied them. Founding families may try to use the project to maintain their traditional dominance. These are examples of historically based incentives influencing certain behaviours that can affect the implementation of community forestry activities.

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In the months leading up to Iceland’s first-ever FIFA World Cup, Hannes Thór Halldórsson juggled his time on the pitch with time behind a camera. Now, the goalkeeper for the smallest qualifying nation can say he directed a commercial for one of the world’s biggest brands. The 34-year-old Halldórsson, who has only been playing professionally since 2014, has for many years pursued his passions as both a footballer and a filmmaker. “As soon as we qualified, I sent him a him a message saying: ‘This

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PARIS – As Coca-Cola continues to introduce more drinks in more categories, the company still sees plenty of growth opportunity for its flagship brand. “When you throw away glasses that only see challenges and no opportunities – and you put on a different set of glasses and you look for opportunity – this is what you see,” Chief Growth Officer Francisco Crespo said Wednesday at Deutsche Bank’s Global Consumer Conference in Paris. Crespo estimates that 600 million people worldwide could be drinking

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America’s top chilled juice and juice drink brand is welcoming a new lower-sugar, lower-calorie line to its portfolio this summer. Simply® Light beverages are now available nationwide in four flavors: Simply Light Orange Pulp Free, Simply Light Orange with Calcium Vitamin D, Simply Light Lemonade and Simply Light Lemonade with Raspberry. The two Simply Light Orange varieties feature half the sugar and calories of Simply Orange, and Simply Light Lemonades include 75% less sugar and fewer calories

You can see this in the example below, which shows a small section of code from one of the Met Office Hadley Centre models. The code contains commands such as “IF”, “THEN” and “DO”. When the model is run, it is first translated (automatically) into machine code that the computer understands.

A section of code from HadGEM2-ES (as used for CMIP5) in Fortran programming language. The code is from within the plant physiology section that starts to look at how the different vegetation types absorb light and moisture. Credit: Dr Chris Jones, Met Office Hadley Centre

There are now many other programming languages available to climate scientists, such as , Python , , Matlab and . However, the last four of these are applications that are themselves written in a more fundamental language (such as Fortran) and, therefore, are relatively slow to run. Fortran and C are generally used today for running a global model quickly on a supercomputer.

Spatial resolution

Throughout the code in a climate model are equations that govern the underlying physics of the climate system, from how sea ice forms and melts on Arctic waters to the exchange of gases and moisture between the land surface and the air above it.

The figure below shows how more and more climate processes have been incorporated into global models over the decades, from the mid-1970s through to the fourth assessment report (“AR4”) of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007.

Illustration of the processes added to global climate models over the decades, from the mid-1970s, through the first four IPCC assessment reports: first (“FAR”) published in 1990, second (“SAR”) in 1995, third (“TAR”) in 2001 and fourth (“AR4”) in 2007. (Note, there is also a fifth report, which was completed in 2014). Source: IPCC AR4, Fig 1.2

So, how does a model go about calculating all these equations?

Because of the complexity of the climate system and limitation of computing power, a model cannot possibly calculate all of these processes for every cubic metre of the climate system. Instead, a climate model divides up the Earth into a series of boxes or “grid cells”. A global model can have dozens of layers across the height and depth of the atmosphere and oceans.

The image below shows a 3D representation of what this looks like. The model then calculates the state of the climate system in each cell – factoring in temperature, air pressure, humidity and wind speed.

Illustration of grid cells used by climate models and the climatic processes that the model will calculate for each cell (bottom corner). Source: NOAA GFDL

For processes that happen on scales that are smaller than the grid cell, such as convection, the model uses “parameterisations” to fill in these gaps. These are essentially approximations that simplify each process and allow them to be included in the model. (Parameterisation is covered in the question on model tuning below .)

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Marcus Fairs | 4 comments

Interview: over dinner in an apartment inside a historic clock tower, Airbnb co-founder and CEO Brian Chesky told Dezeen how two young design graduates built the home-stay booking website that is now bigger than most hotel chains.

Interview:

The venue, Womens Valsecca wallet Black Black Aldo EQnQd4
(main image) in Sir George Gilbert Scott's 1868 gothic revival hotel at St Pancras, is one of Airbnb's elite rental properties. Guests share the property with its owner, Peter Tompkins, who rents rooms through Airbnb for just £150 per night (although it gets booked up months ahead).

"I think this really sums up the wonderful authentic feeling you get when you're travelling," said Chesky, who founded the company with fellow Rhode Island School of Design graduateJoe Gebbia in 2008. "We've kept the feeling of being at home anywhere."

The duo had the idea for a site that would allow travellers to stay in ordinary homes instead of hotels when, short of money to pay the rent on their San Francisco apartment, they bought a couple of inflatable air beds and rented them out to attendees of a design conference in the city.

"We called it the Air Bed and Breakfast," he says. "From that weekend it's grown to where we are today, which is 252,000 people every night staying at Airbnb at peak."

Silicon Valley didn't take the company seriously at first, partly since it was headed by designers rather than engineers - and partly because nobody thought anyone would pay to stay in someone else's home.

"When we came to the Valley, no one even wanted to invest in Airbnb," he says. "One of the reasons was they thought the idea was crazy. People thought: 'I'd never stay in a stranger's home. That's creepy'.But the other reason is that they didn't think a designer could build and run a company."

Chesky explained to Dezeen how the company won over the doubters and built a global business where "everything we do is design driven".

Images are courtesy of Airbnb.

Marcus Fairs: What is Airbnb?

Marcus Fairs:

Brian Chesky: Airbnb is a new way to travel and experience the world. We had this vision: what if you could book someone's home the way you could book a hotel anywhere in the world? And that's what we have today. We've kept the feeling of being at home anywhere. We're in 190 countries, that's every country but four countries in the world. Thirty-four thousand cities. You can get a home, a castle, a teepee, a treehouse, a boat. Really interesting homes. We're here in the clock tower at St Pancras station; I think this really sums up the wonderful authentic feeling you get when you're travelling.

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