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At the Met Office Hadley Centre, the development process involves multiple teams, or “Process Evaluation Groups”, looking to improve a different element of the model, explains Woollings:

“The Process Evaluation Groups are essentially taskforces which look after certain aspects of the model. They monitor the biases in their area as the model develops, and test new methods to reduce these. These groups meet regularly to discuss their area, and often contain members from the academic community as well as Met Office scientists.

The improvements that each group are working on are then brought together into the new model. Once complete, the model can start to be run in earnest, says Jones:

“At the end of a two- or three-year process, we have a new-generation model that we believe is better than the last one, and then we can start to use that to kind of go back to the scientific questions we’ve looked at before and see if we can answer them better.”

One of the main limitations of global climate models is that the grid cells they are made up of are typically around 100km in longitude and latitude in the mid-latitudes. When you consider that the UK, for example, is only a little over 400km wide, that means it is represented in a GCM by a handful of grid boxes.

Such a coarse resolution means the GCMs miss the geographical features that characterise a particular location. Some island states are so small that a GCM might just consider them as a patch of ocean, notes Prof Michael Taylor , a senior lecturer at the University of the West Indies and a coordinating lead author of the Red Fringe Bracelet OS / RED I Saw It First Tu6mf1
. He tells Carbon Brief:

“If you think about the eastern Caribbean islands, a single eastern Caribbean island falls within a grid box, so is represented as water within these global climate models.”

“Even the larger Caribbean islands are represented as one or, at most, two grid boxes – so you get information for just one or two grid boxes – this poses a limitation for the small islands of the Caribbean region and small islands in general. And so you don’t end up with refined, finer scale, sub-country scale information for the small islands.”

Scientists overcome this problem by “downscaling” global climate information to a local or regional scale. In essence, this means taking information provided by a GCM or coarse-scale observations and applying it to specific place or region.

Tobago Cays and Mayreau Island, St. Vincent and The Grenadines. Credit: robertharding/Alamy Stock Photo.

For small island states, this process allows scientists to get useful data for specific islands, or even areas within islands, explains Taylor:

“The whole process of downscaling then is trying to take the information that you can get from the large scale and somehow relate it to the local scale, or the island scale, or even the sub-island scale.”

Have high expectations for all students Have a variety of research-based instructional strategies at hand Use ongoing assessment to guide instruction Provide multiple types of assessment Differentiate homework Collaborate Use flexible grouping Make content comprehensible for all students

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., Short, D. (2008). . Boston: Pearson.

Fairbain, S., Jones-Vo, S. (2010). . Philadelphia: Caslon.

Irujo, S. (2004, September/October). Differentiated instruction: We can no longer just aim down the middle. . Retrieved from

Tomlinson, C. A. (2005). Differentiating instruction: Why bother? , 9, 12-14.

Tomlinson, C. A., Imbeau, M. B. (2010). . Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

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Kate replied on Permalink

This article touches upon what I find to be one of the most important points in educating ELLs, which is the need to insure that the instructional rigor, level of content, and high expectations are not compromised. Differentiating instruction needs to be about “how can I change my approach to teaching this content so my student can learn” rather than “how can I change the content so my student can learn.” Although the second option is easier it has led to the overwhelming gaps in education that we now see.

Santina (orange... replied on Permalink

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Ethics guide

Animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products. Many of these experiments cause pain to the animals involved or reduce their quality of life in other ways. If it is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer then experimenting on animals produces serious moral problems.

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Animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products.

Many of these experiments cause pain to the animals involved or reduce their quality of life in other ways.

If it is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer then experimenting on animals produces serious moral problems.

Animal experimenters are very aware of this ethical problem and acknowledge that experiments should be made as humane as possible.

They also agree that it's wrong to use animals if alternative testing methods would produce equally valid results.

In favour of animal experiments: Against animal experiments:

The case for animal experiments is that they will produce such great benefits for humanity that it is morally acceptable to harm a few animals.

The equivalent case against is that the level of suffering and the number of animals involved are both so high that the benefits to humanity don't provide moral justification.

The three Rs are a set of principles that scientists are encouraged to follow in order to reduce the impact of research on animals.

The three Rs are: Reduction, Refinement, Replacement.

Reduction Refinement Replacement

Scientists say that banning animal experiments would mean either

Animal experiments are not used to show that drugs are safe and effective in human beings - they cannot do that. Instead, they are used to help decide whether a particular drug should be tested on people.

Animal experiments eliminate some potential drugs as either ineffective or too dangerous to use on human beings. If a drug passes the animal test it's then tested on a small human group before large scale clinical trials.

Long signed a five-year contract worth $1.5 million annually, with Kansas Athletics Inc. paying $1.3 million of the total and the university paying the remaining $200,000.

He has terms written into his contract to protect him if Kansas ever receives restrictions or probation for violations committed by the football, men's and women's basketball or women's athletic teams before the start of his contract. If the school were to receive any such discipline, Long's contract would be extended to match the length of any penalties.

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Long, who also had served as the chairman of the College Football Playoff selection committee, will be formally introduced at a news conference on July 11.

His hiring was praised by former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, who served with Long on the CFP selection committee; Big 12 commissioner Bob Bowlsby, who called Long an "excellent addition'' to the conference; and Texas Tech athletic director Kirby Hocutt, among others.

Long, 58, replaces Sheahon Zenger, who was fired in May after joining the school as AD in 2011. The school cited a lack of progress in key areas for his dismissal.

The men's basketball program , under Hall of Fame coach Bill Self, remained successful, but Zenger accomplished little else in the areas that matter most. That includes much-needed renovations to Memorial Stadium, the aging eyesore on the north edge of campus, and an even more crucial restoration of its accompanying football program , which has won three games over the past three years.

The Jayhawks haven't had a winning season in a decade, and the two coaches hired by Zenger -- Charlie Weis and current coach David Beatty -- are a combined 8-55 since 2012.

Long was the AD at Arkansas from 2008 until last year when the school fired him after the Razorbacks' football program began to struggle. The school's chancellor said Long had "lost the support of many of our fans, alumni, key supporters, and members of the university leadership."

During his time as the Razorbacks' AD, the school won 34 conference championships across all sports and made its first BCS bowl appearance. He spearheaded a $160 million renovation to the Razorbacks' football stadium, a task similar to the one he will undertake at Kansas.

Zenger had announced plans for a $350 million renovation to Memorial Stadium, but support has been tepid.

Long was the inaugural chairman of the CFP selection committee in 2014 and '15 and remained on the committee through last year.

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